Cancer immunotherapy is an innovative cancer treatment to help use one’s own human body to fight cancer cells. There are different types of immunotherapy including treatments that utilize antibodies to bind and inhibit the function of proteins in cancer cells; therapies that direct the immune system to attack tumor cells through specific targeting; and therapies that enhance existing anti-tumor responses in the body. Vaccines and CAR T (chimeric antigen receptor) cell therapy are types of immunotherapy that have shown positive outcomes in the treatment of various types of cancer.
Cancer immunotherapy is different from chemotherapy because chemotherapy ends up weakening the whole immune system with strong drugs, while immunotherapy stimulates the immune system to fight off cancer. The two treatments work very differently to attack cancer cells. Chemotherapy is the most common treatment which helps to prevent cancer from growing and spreading rapidly. This can unfortunately also mean that healthy cells are attacked, which can cause other issues in the body. Immunotherapy will help your immune system to become stronger by teaching it to recognize and attack harmful cells, leaving healthy cells alone.
There are possible side effects with every type of therapy. Side effects to immunotherapy that are common are: fever, chills, nausea, fatigue and loss of appetite. Many patients experience little to no side effects from immunotherapy. Side effects that are rare may include: heart damage, severe onset diabetes and severe allergic reactions. There is also the possible risk of experiencing cytokine release syndrome, neurologic toxicity recognition or anaphylaxis with CAR T cell treatment. Controlling toxicity has become a critical step in the successful application of CAR T treatments and medications to help prevent a cytokine release storm may be given with the immunotherapy treatment.
Immunotherapy helps patients when their own immune system is too weak to fight off the cancer cells itself. With different types of immunotherapy available from cancer vaccines, CAR T cell therapies, to immune checkpoint inhibitors, and monoclonal antibodies – there are many more new immunotherapy methods to fight cancer. There are numerous immunotherapy treatments – some that work to boost your overall immune system, while others that work to attack specific areas such as cells in tumors. Each type of immunotherapy has its own benefits and risks. With new cancer treatments involving immunotherapy, scientists are hoping to have more treatments to help patients become cancer-free with fewer side effects.
Cancers which have been successfully treated for some patients using immunotherapy include: pediatric and adults with leukemia and lymphoma, melanoma and lung cancer. Investment and research being funded by organizations like Alliance for Cancer Gene Therapy are now focused on applying immunotherapy for types of cancer such as glioblastoma, sarcoma, pancreatic cancer and other solid tumor types.
A huge advancement in cancer immunotherapy treatments occurred in 2017 when the FDA approved the first-ever cancer gene therapy treatment KYMRIAH® (tisagenlecleucel), a CAR T cell therapy, to treat pediatric leukemia. This treatment, pioneered by Dr. Carl June and his team at the University of Pennsylvania with funding support from ACGT, uses CAR T cell therapy and genetically reprograms the patient’s immune cells to fight the cancer. The patient’s T cells are removed and genetically engineered in a lab. They are grown in large numbers with one objective: to kill the cancer cell. This is known as a “living therapy” with more than an 80 percent effective rate in patients. Super T cells are created and infused back in the body where they will multiply and attack the cancer cells, making the treatment even more effective.
Later in 2017, the FDA approved YESCARTA® (axicabtagene ciloleucel), also a CAR T cell therapy, the second gene therapy approved by the FDA and the first for certain types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).
In June 2020, FDA approved a third CAR-T therapy called TECARTUS™ for relapsed/refractory mantle cell lymphoma.
“I am extremely grateful to ACGT for funding this next phase of our work,” says Dr. Kasahara. “At a time when federal funding has become scarce, it’s wonderful and inspiring to see organizations like ACGT step up to support the potential of innovative science. Together, we will continue our fight to find better ways to help cancer patients.” Read more about ACGT Fellow Noriyuki Kasahara, MD, PhD and his groundbreaking work in brain cancer
“ACGT is a very forward-thinking organization. ACGT recognized the potential for cancer gene therapy very early on and that foresight is paying off. In the next 50 years, I think we’re going to see cell and gene therapy become the part of medicine where the most dramatic advances are made.” Read more about ACGT Fellow Crystal Mackall, MD., and her work in CAR T cell therapies for solid tumors
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